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This article discusses the theories of Sigmund Freud with regards to human anxiety and depression and how these concepts relate to each other.

Anxiety, Depression and Defense Mechanisms

Anxiety, Depression and Defense MechanismsSigmund Freud, the Father of Psychoanalysis, came up with his own theory of explaining the occurrence of anxiety and depression as part of human experience. His explanation of this phenomena traces its origin from the three divisions of the psyche. According to Freud, the human psyche is divided into the id, ego, and superego. These three divisions are only acquired eventually as a person also grows. To have a better understanding of the psyche and its three divisions, one should start with the world and its components.The world is made up of numerous and different components, and one of those components is the human organism. A human organism has a special ability to survive and reproduce, his guiding force being his needs such as hunger, thirst, fear of pain and sex. It should be noted that these needs are part of a person's unconscious mind. A person's psyche is sensitive to these needs and transforms them into instincts, drives or wishes. This division of the psyche functions with a process called the pleasure principle and it is described as the id's responsibility to take care of the needs immediately. This behavior is mostly observed during infancy just like when a baby cries when it is hungry or thirsty. However, when a person's need is not satisfied by the id his or her need just becomes stronger. This need then enters the conscious mind which is associated to another division of the psyche. This part of the psyche is called the ego and it relates a person's consciousness or reality. This part of the psyche operates based on the reality principle. The reality principle is about the belief that the ego will respond to satisfy the need as soon as it finds the appropriate object to satisfy it. However, as the ego continuously responds to an organism's needs, it sometimes experiences obstacles against attaining its goals as well as things that assist it to attain the goals. The ego keeps track of these two types of factors, particularly the rewards and punishments that are given by two of the most influential persons in an organism's life, his or her parents. The records that the ego keep about obstacles to avoid and the strategies it must take are all passed onto the superego, the third division of a person's psyche. It is only when someone is around five or seven years old that this part of the psyche becomes complete.The superego is divided into two subparts, the conscience and the ego ideal. The conscience is the internalization of the punishments and the warnings while the ego ideal is based on the rewards and positive models that a person had encountered. The superego, together with its subparts, communicate their own requirements to the ego through feelings such as shame, guilt, and pride. Because of the existence of the superego, a person also acquires a new set of needs as well as wishes. However, these new sets of needs are based on social rather than biological origins. These new wishes coming from the superego are sometimes in conflict with the wishes from the id, often leaving the ego overwhelmed or threatened. This overwhelmed and threatened feeling of the ego is where anxiety comes from. According to Freud, there are three kinds of anxiety. The first kind is called realistic anxiety and it takes the form of human fears which are consequences of threats from the physical world. The second one is known as moral anxiety and it is a result of the threat that the ego perceives from the social world. It usually takes the form of feelings such as guilt, shame, and fear of punishment. Finally, the third kind of anxiety is called neurotic anxiety and it is a result of the fear of being overwhelmed by the impulses from the id.In order for the ego to deal with these threats without feeling overwhelmed, it sometimes unconsciously blocks the impulses or distorts them into more acceptable forms. This process of blocking and distorting is what Freud called a defense mechanism.Defense mechanisms come in various forms. One mechanism in particular is called turning against self. This happens when a person feels negative impulses such as hatred, aggression, and anger towards others but displaces these impulses to one's self. This explains human emotions of inferiority, guilt, and depression. Depression, Freud further explains, actually results from anger that a person refuses to acknowledge.As more and more people, nowadays, experience having problems with regards to their anxieties and depression, a better understanding of these concepts from a Freudian perspective can actually help in resolving it. According to Freud, resolution can only be achieved when a person is made aware of those experiences or ideas in the unconscious and therapy be directed to the root of the problems which are most likely rooted in the unconscious.

Tips for Picking an Optimally Efficient Air Cleaner

Tips for Picking an Optimally Efficient Air Cleaner

High Efficiency Particulate Arrestance (HEPA)One of the important acronyms to look out for is HEPA, which stands for High Efficiency Particulate Arrestance. HEPA filters were originally designed around the time of World War II to keep radioactive particles out of the air and out of the human respiratory system. Today the HEPA filter is considered top of the heap when it comes to efficiency, as it filters just under 100% of all 0.3 micron particles (smaller than the size of most bacteria).Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM)Everyones out for a bargain these days, and some manufacturers have gotten into the game by producing inexpensive generic replacement parts for air filters. When the time comes for you to replace your filter or any other part of your unit, think long and hard about whether the lower cost is worth it to you in the long run. Generic parts may not be of the same high quality as the original brand version, and it could bring down the efficiency of the entire system. If so, you are certainly not getting your moneys worth!In the air quality business, theres a phrase for products made by the original brand or company that manufactured your filter: original equipment manufacturer (OEM). What it means is very simple: you should purchase replacement parts from the same manufacturer who made the air filter you are looking to repair or perform upkeep on. This will ensure consistency of results and the overall high quality of the system. Mixing manufacturers or purchasing replacement parts from a generic maker can compromise the system and allow more contaminants to remain airborne. If the issue of cost is a concern to you, you might want to keep in mind that, when it comes to air filters, cost is often an indicator of quality. In other words, low-cost parts may be lower-quality, whereas higher-end parts are going to be of a higher quality. What that means is that you are going to get much more use out of the higher-end parts, which makes them more valuable in the long-term.Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (MERV)When choosing your original filter, as well as replacement filters, you should be sure to find out the filters MERV, or minimum efficiency reporting value. The MERV rating tells you the efficiency (or ability to filter particles) that you can expect from this particular product. A low rating of 1 tells you that the filter is not very efficient at trapping particles, while a high rating of 12 to 16 tells you that this filter is going to be able to filter many more particles, relatively speaking. (The entire scale runs from 1 to 16.) The MERV scale is standard across companies and manufacturers, so it can be very useful when it comes to comparing various products or various brands. Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR)If you look on the manufacturers packaging you will see three CADR numbers that indicate the volume of filtered air for each of three contaminants: dust, pollen, and cigarette smoke. High numbers are good here, because that means the filtration rate is high. The experts suggest buying a filter with a CADR rate that is roughly two-thirds the number of square feet in the space youre trying to clean. For example, if your room to be filtered is 10 feet by 9 feet (90 square feet), then youll want a CADR of 60 (two-thirds of 90).Remember that the numbers on the packaging are indicative of the units performance when used in conjunction with OEM partsnot generic replacement parts. To keep your unit running with the stated CADR rates youll need to stick with OEM parts.

How Stress and Anxiety are Connected to Tinnitus

How Stress and Anxiety are Connected to Tinnitus

Stress can cause many problems and exacerbate others, including Tinnitus, or ringing in the ears. Many individuals suffer from this malady and can deal with it on a daily basis until stress levels rise and then the Tinnitus becomes significantly worse.Of course, there are many different reasons why an individual may develop Tinnitus, but stress and anxiety can intensify the effects of the ringing in the ears. Because of this individuals with Tinnitus need to manage the stress in their lives to minimize the effects. In general, when an individual suffers from tinnitus the body feels as if it is being attacked at all times. So, the effects are never-ending and the body ultimately responds in a physical way with additional problems like insomnia, anxiety, and even depression. Once these responses occur they only serve to intensify the tinnitus, which is just a violent circle. Because of this it is incredibly important for sufferers to find a way to relax and keep their symptoms at bay (as much as possible) instead of stressing out and exacerbating them. Of course, this is much easier to say than to actually implement. But, nevertheless, it is very important to make an effort to achieve. Sufferers of tinnitus know this very well and try their best not to stress out because the ringing in their ears only gets worse.It is unfortunate that tinnitus makes individuals stress out over their symptoms and then their stressing only causes their symptoms to worsen. Fortunately, for individuals with tinnitus there are ways to get stress under control before it gets out of hand and causes the individual worse ringing in their ears. One example of a way to reduce stress is to simply exercise. It has been proven that exercise really helps individuals relax, forget about whats bothering them, and simply enjoy life. Those with tinnitus should exercise every single day in order to relax, forget about their ringing ears for just a bit, and hopefully relax enough to keep the symptoms from getting too bad. Another good option for reducing stress is to take part in yoga and meditation and even have a massage on a regular basis. Nobody wants to have tinnitus and those who do certainly dont want their symptoms to get any worse than they have to. Due to this individuals suffering from tinnitus should make all efforts to live a low key and relaxing life that has as little stress as possible. And, in addition to this tinnitus sufferers should do their best to exercise and take part in relaxation exercises to keep what stress they do have at bay. Many individuals suffer from tinnitus and of them approximately 90% experience exaggerated symptoms when subjected to stressful situations. Because of this individuals with tinnitus must do all they can in order to reduce stress in their lives so they may live an enjoyable life.

Great Tips For Low Carb Dieters

Great Tips For Low Carb Dieters

If you have ever been on a 'diet, you will know how frightening that word is. Diet mean deprivation, right? Wrong. With a low-carb diet, there is no deprivation. In fact, you have the freedom to eat a lot of stuff that traditional diets do not allow. You only need to go light on the carbs! Carbohydrates (or carbs as they are lovingly called) are a type of complex sugar. They are complex because they have a kind of wrapping that needs to be broken down by the body. Carbohydrates are found in almost any kind of food - bread, pasta, vegetables, and fruits. Carbs are stored in the liver where they are then broken down to form simple sugars called glucose. A diet rich in carbohydrates supplies a surplus of sugar to the body. This leads to obesity, diabetes, hypoglycemia, hypertension, and type II diabetes. Research has proved that the traditional low-fat, low-calorie diet is ineffective in reducing weight. In a low carb diet, the carbohydrates in the diet are replaced with fat and proteins (poultry, cheese, meat, fish, and eggs; along with lots of vegetables). Carbohydrates should ideally make up only 5-10% of the daily calorie intake. The reasoning behind this diet is that carbs are readily converted into fat due to the action of insulin. Elevated insulin levels cause fat to be deposited in the body. So you become fat. High sugar in the blood also stimulates hunger signals in the brain. This is what produces the hunger cravings that lead you to binge on more carbs. So, its really a vicious circle, where the more you eat, the more you want. The only way to put an end to this vicious cycle is by limiting the carb intake. Soon, the insulin levels start to fall and glucagons are produced. Now, glucagons are the nice guys - they burn fat and unclog the arteries. Low carb diets facilitate quicker weight loss and stabilize the blood sugar level (diabetics, are you listening?).How to start a "low carb" diet:-Consume lots of water as constipation may set in at the beginning of the diet-Fiber and vitamin supplements need to be taken-Sugar, pastries, and white flour are all taboo-Avoid caffeine-Exercise regularly-Avoid saturated fatsA word of caution:Many items in the market are marked sugar free. But these items are to be avoided. Sugar-free does not make it carb-free. Sugar-free cakes, biscuits and snacks still contain starch, which gets converted to sugar. Beware of the no sugar added labels. This just means the manufacturer has not added any extra sugar to the product. Fibers are good for you. Both soluble and insoluble fibers are necessary for good health. It is quite normal for your body to become smaller without you losing weight. So, take your body measurements. Do not starve yourself or go hungry. Eat smaller meals and increase the frequency. Do not restrict the calorie intake, as this will slow down metabolism and force the body into starvation mode. Instead, increase the fat and protein in your diet. A diet without exercise is like a 10 without the 1. Bump up your exercise level and add some weightlifting to your routine. Keep a diet diary, and meticulously and honestly keep records of what you consume. Once the excess weight is gone, and your blood chemistry and energy levels have stabilized, you may start adding more carbs back into your diet.

Discovered The Secret To Living Longer

Everyone wants to live longer and we spend a lot of money trying to find the secrets to living a longer life. We buy potions, pills, creams and exercise equipment all in an effort to maintain or regain our youth. I have nine living uncles and aunts and the YOUNGEST is 79 years old. Even though I will soon be 70 I still work and play like I did many years ago. There are too many books on How to Live Longer but there are some simple recipes for living a successful long life. First and foremost Plan on it. Just that simple. Plan on it. Dream about the future no matter what terrible things lay in your past. No matter what has happened in the past, dream about tomorrow. You cant change yesterday but you CAN change tomorrow. LISTEN: Your future STOPS when you stop planning your future! Did you get that? Your future STOPS when you stop planning your future!! God only knows how long I will live but Im having a ball planning my future. Always think about tomorrow and you wont lose sight of today. Start planning your future today!!I love classic cars. They are my passion. Yesterdays treasures are a serious part of my future. How about yours? Check out my website at www.gemsofcoloronline.com

Smoking Damages Gum Repair Procedures

Smoking is considered as a very unhealthy vice that brings with it a wide range of side effects. While smokers will be quick to say that smoking helps them feel more relaxed or alert. Smokers often contend that smoking is a very effective antidepressant. Still, it is undeniable that tobacco use is closely associated with lung cancer and a variety of other debilitating respiratory problems. Another potential effect that smoking has on the overall health of the body has also been recently suggested, with some data indicating that smoking might have detrimental effects to the success of dental surgery. According to the findings of a study recently published in the Journal of Periodontology, smokers were more likely to have unfavorable results related to dental surgery than non-smokers. The study followed the dental records of two groups of people, smokers and non-smokers, and studied the overall success of various dental procedures done to them. While smoking has always been known to have the ability to damage the gums, it was unexpected when the researchers realized that the surgical procedures done to the smoking group were in overall worse condition as opposed to the other group. This was particularly true when it came to procedures that involved the gums, which were found to be in more rapid recession after surgery if patients were smokers.It has been known for many years that healing after a surgical procedure is impaired by smoking, but what was unknown prior to this study was that smoking also had one more detrimental effect. Long-term smoking was capable of undoing any surgical repairs done to the gums, rendering anything done during the procedure unable to stay intact for a long-term period. Theoretically, the more a person smokes, the more damage is incurred and the shorter the period that the repairs will remain. The researchers found, based on analysis of their data, that the best results were achieved if smoking was stopped for a period before and after the surgery. This was speculated to be the time needed by the gums to fully recover from any damage done by exposure to the components of tobacco.The Journal also found that it is not just cigarette smokers that have this problem. Cigar and pipe smokers are also likely to experience rapid decay of gum repairs because of their habit. While the damage done has been confirmed, there is still no concrete data on whether or not cigarette smokers had it worse off than pipe or cigar smokers. For the time being, some believe it would be safe to warn smokers of the potential dangers as if all three posed the same risks.Second-hand smoke was also found to have a damaging effect on surgical procedures. Studies are still being made to determine the extend of damage wrought by second-hand smoke on dental works. Tests conducted on rats showed that second-hand smoke was capable of undoing any repairs done via surgery to the gums, but it is still unknown just how much exposure was needed to do damage, or if the damage was lesser or greater than for actual smokers.

Summary

This article discusses the theories of Sigmund Freud with regards to human anxiety and depression and how these concepts relate to each other.